PeruPeru Perú - Country Profile

Geography: (Map) Size: 1 285 216 km2. 2414 km dry Pazific coast, followed by the Andes (highest peaks: Huascarán 6768 alt. and Yerupajá 6632 alt.), the spur of the Andes (Montaña) and the Amazon jungle (Selva; 676 000 km2).

Natural Resources: Copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, iron-ore, oil, vanadium.

Agriculture: 3,3% acreage; cotton, sugar-cane and wine at the coast (Costa); cattle-breeding in the Andes; rice, coca, coffee, cocoa.

Population: (2000) 24,797 million inhabitants; 45% Indigenous, 37% Mestizos, 15% Europeans; Creols, Blacks and Chineses.

arequipaPolitical Partition: Capital: Lima; 25 provinces: Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cuzco (Cusco), Huancavelica, Huánuco, Ica, Junín, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquega, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna.

History: Prehistoric remains in Nasca and Pampas de Jumana: giant mysterious rock drawings. In pre colonial times Perú was the center of the Inka empire - ruled by the Inka, an indian aristocracy - with Cuzco as capital (3500 alt.; rebuild on the Inka ruines after an erthquake in spanish-indian mixed colonial style, the "Rome of South-America"). In the 12th and 13th century the Inka dominion reached from Ecuador to the middle of Chile. There are still impressive remains of monumental architecture (e.g. Cuzco, Machu Pijchu, Chavin, Chan Chan). In 1531 conquest by the Spanish "discoverer" Francisco Pizarro. In 1539 foundation of Lima instead of Cuzco. 1543-1739 center of a vice kingdom which covered the whole Spanish part of South America. 1820-26 fight for independence, in 1827 separation of Bolivia. Loss of the provinces Tarapacá, Arica and Tacna in the war on salpeter against Chile 1879-83. In 1889 loss of Guano stocks (Guano: sediments of cadavers and bird droppings, useful as dung), railways and mines to foreign creditors for 66 years. In 1929 Perú got back Tacna under president Leguia, backed by the US. New constitution in 1993. In 1999 settlement of the boundary ligitations with Ecuador (since the 19th century).

Cuescomore on Perú:

perú |